How much progress has been done on Coronavirus vaccine?

Coronavirus vaccine is an arduous, million-dollar task nowadays when the coronavirus has become a global health crisis, killed thousands of people, and spreading throughout the world at an alarming rate,

Coronavirus map

Considering the whole situation of pandemic created by the coronavirus, it puts huge pressure on scholars, researchers, and scientists, to create an effective vaccine for this disease. In the rest of the article, we’ll explore the top four pharmaceutical research going on in the world. These are:

  1. Novavax Corona Vaccine Experiment
  2. Moderna’s mRNA-1273
  3. Regeneron’s REGN 3048-3051
  4. INOVIO’s  INO-4800

NOVAVAX CORONAVIRUS VACCINE EXPERIMENT

hand holding vial with coronavirus label

Novavax is trying a new technique to create the coronavirus vaccine as a recombinant vaccine. In this, the genetic code for the protein spike on the surface of SARS-COV-2 is extracted, which is responsible to cause an immune reaction in humans. Then they pass over this genetic coding to bacterium or yeast that produces a large quantity of protein. Along with it, Boston company, CureVac, and Moderna are also trying to produce coronavirus vaccines out of messenger RNA. Up to date,  there is no approved vaccine that is produced by the genetic material of RNA or DNA.

MODERNA’S mRNA-1273 CORONAVIRUS VACCINE EXPERIMENT

Moderna Inc. Of Cambridge, has started the phase I human clinical trial testing mRNA -1273 to produce the vaccine. The researchers are conducting this research to invent the vaccine in Washington, currently going through the first phase of the trial.

In phase I trial, the researchers have tested 45 healthy human beings, adults aged between 18-55 for over 6 weeks. The subjects received the injection on day 1 and day 29 and will be monitored for 12 months after the second shot.

Phase I focuses on the safety of the vaccine and to know if it is producing the immune response in humans. Later phases will focus more on its effectiveness against preventing the infection. This coronavirus vaccine differs from the traditional vaccines because they use the virus itself, while this vaccine uses the genetic sequence from messenger RNA of COVID-19.

REGENERON’S REGN 3048-3051 VACCINE EXPERIMENT

Regeneron’s pharmaceutical of Tarrytown, New York, is trying to produce a vaccine that will provide passive immunity to the people. It will work on the principle of directly injecting the preformed antibodies. The scientists of this pharmaceutical are working by modifying the immune system of mice to produce the vaccine. They have altered the mice’s immune system to that of humans, exposed them to the coronavirus and infected them. Then they have separated and isolated these antibodies.

They have also isolated the antibodies produced by the people who have recovered from coronavirus. They will combine both antibodies and will formulate it as a vaccine. The advantage of combining both the antibodies to produce the vaccine is, that it will remain effective even if the virus mutates.

This vaccine targets the spike protein present on the surface of the virus. This spike protein binds the virus to the host cell and causes an immune reaction. The Regeneron’s vaccine will target to block the spike protein interaction with the host cell, eventually neutralizing the virus.

The doctors can also use this vaccine also as a drug for treating coronavirus, but according to the company, they will use it as a preventive measure for healthy people.

coronavirus vaccine

INOVIO’S INO-4800 VACCINE EXPERIMENT

Inovio’s pharmaceutical of Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania, is also approaching to produce the vaccine with the same technique of Moderna’s. Their approach is to insert DNA plasmids directly into the cells. They have optimized the plasmids and reorganized them by computer sequencing technique. The plasmids will replicate inside the human body and strengthen the natural human immune response.

The company has already conducted its research on animals for the vaccine. They are hoping to start the trials on humans by April 2020, which will involve 30 healthy people.

 CONCLUSION

Copy of Corona Response Unit
Instacare Corona Response Unit

The health care professionals are working day and night to design a vaccine. Experts say it will still take a year or more to create it. We have to be patient about the vaccine because scientists can not design these overnight. To market the coronavirus vaccine, scientists have to make sure it is safe and effective. The pharmaceutical companies are trying their best to invent a potent vaccine.  We will soon get the way out for fighting against this contagious virus. Stay positive and protected! In case you feel any signs of coronavirus in you, get a certified doctor’s opinion through InstaCare Telemedicine; remotely, safely, and instantly.